Highland Learning and Teaching Toolkit

 Home | Inclusive & Enjoyable | Flexible  | Whole Learner | Active Citizens | Multiple Intelligence

| About this Toolkit | Parents | Practical Strategies SMT | Feedback | Site Map | Search

Link to Highland Council Website

Learning and Teaching should be Flexible:

Peer and Self Assessment
 

 
 
Gender
Peer/Self Assessment
Co-operative Learning
Target Setting
Accelerated Learning
Differentiation
Flexible Learning
Feedback and Marking
Study Skills
Skills and Knowledge
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

Peer Assessment is where a pupil’s work is judged by fellow pupils.   Self Assessment  involves pupils making judgements about their own work.  These strategies involve more than using marking keys, but give opportunities for exploration of the fundamentals of the assessment process, including various types of evaluation.

Points Arising from Research

Inside the Black Box (See section on Formative Assessment) by Black and Wiliam emphasises peer- and self-assessment as key techniques: “If formative assessment is to be productive, pupils should be trained in self-assessment so that they can understand the main purposes of learning and thereby grasp what is to be achieved”.

bullet

It has been found in Scottish research that pupils who reflect on their learning can improve exam performance by up to two grades

bullet

Positive effects of these strategies are more pronounced with less able pupils

Key Elements of Peer - and Self-Assessment

Benefits of Peer Assessment
 

bullet

It helps expose misconceptions

bullet

It can provide immediate support in the classroom

bullet

Pupils will often respond more positively to a peer than to a teacher

bullet

When writing for peers, pupils may improve specifics such as handwriting

bullet

Peers often know more about the work than parents and can give more help, especially in secondary stages

bullet

It is individualised and interactive

bullet

The assessor gains as well as the assessed

bullet

Social and communication skills can be improved

bullet

Teacher can stand back, observe and make focused interventions

bullet

Pupils take more responsibility for their own learning

bullet

It helps develop skills needed in the world of work

bullet

Pupils can understand better the role of and need for assessment

Criteria and Targets

bullet

A key problem in the learning process is pupils’ lack of understanding of the criteria for success

bullet

Pupils should be consciously aware of what their target is, what their current position is in relation to this and how this gap can be bridged

bullet

In order for peer assessment to take place, pupils must be aware of the criteria by which work should be judged

bullet

Pupils are often too hard on themselves and better understanding of criteria can help them evaluate achievement more accurately

bullet

Pupils can make up their own criteria as a means of helping them understand targets

Self assessment

bullet

This should be prepared for by peer assessment

bullet

Ideally it will happen daily in some form

bullet

Individuals are encouraged further to take responsibility for their own learning

bullet

Time needs to be set aside for this (as, indeed, for peer assessment)

bullet

Self assessment extends the benefits outlined for peer assessment.

Practical strategies

bullet

Pupils are given sheets outlining criteria for a task and then apply these

bullet

Pupils write down their own criteria (individuals/pairs/groups?) prior to task

bullet

Pupils (individuals/pairs/groups?) make presentation to class and invite comments

bullet

Teacher and pupil mark work independently >>> each proposes three amendments  they discuss the proposals

bullet

A poster of self-evaluation questions can be put on the classroom wall

bullet

Pupils do a test and make up an answer key (in a group) >>> other pupils use the answer key  >>> discussion between pupils using key and those who made it up

bullet

Whole class or large group together - pupils present a piece of work for comments

bullet

TRAFFIC LIGHTS: ( Peer-Assessment )  Pupils read each other’s writing and apply colours: green means explanation better than assessor’s; amber means it’s of similar quality; red means assessor feel his/her answer is better.  Then discussion of differences

bullet

TRAFFIC LIGHTS: ( Self-Assessment ) Pupil reads questions and marks each one red, amber or green.   Green means that pupil is confident; amber means uncertain; red means that help is needed.

bullet

Documentation given to pupils to record progress against established criteria

bullet

Teacher observes peer assessment and formulates next lesson on basis of what emerges.

bullet

At the end of a lesson the teacher can set up a review session using peer- and self-assessment principles. 

 Research and Development

How does your current practice relate to the advice from research?   

Can you identify aspects of your current practice which show some of the principles at work?

Some Activities Relating To the Issue of Peer and Self-Assessment

Key element

Objective

Action

 

Some examples and suggestions

Benefits of Peer and Self Assessment Teacher can stand back, observe and make focussed interventions    Have pupils discuss each other’s writing in response to class task.  Note down any areas where they seem to be misunderstanding and plan a whole class lesson on issues arising.  This could then inform a redraft.
Criteria and Targets Pupils should be consciously aware of what their target is, what their current position is in relation to this and how this gap can be bridged. Give pupils a form on which they write down notes on these three areas.  They are likely to have difficulty which will give rise to discussion of road to success.  This may be done in groups prior to whole class work.
Self Assessment Ideally it will happen daily in some form. This can take the form of the pupil reflecting on how a task should be done and what has been achieved.  It does not need to be a formally established session.  We can promote self assessment as a state of mind. 
Practical Strategies Pupils make presentation to class and invite comments. The audience’s judgements can be focused by provision of a checklist of criteria (devised by pupils? or teacher?) so that comments and criticism will be more helpful. 

Selected References


Further Reading

Inside the Black Box by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam is available from:
The Publications Secretary
School of Education
Kings College London
Franklin-Wilkins Building
Waterloo Road
London SE1 8WA
 


Websites

Many web sites have material related to this research.  Try searching for “Inside the black box”.  Try particularly:
www.kcl.ac.uk

Much related work has been done by Keith Topping of the Centre for Paired Learning at the University of Dundee:
www.dundee.ac.uk/psychology/kjtopping

The SCRE web site at www.scre.ac.uk provides access to related reports/studies.

The National Literacy Trust web site at www.literacytrust.org.uk provides information (with a search facility) on related topics, including broader issues relating to peer support.

Professor David Wray of Warwick University promotes the KWL approach, in which pupils write down what they Know about a topic (or think they know), what they Want to know and, later, what they have Learned.


webmaster
 

Last updated 20/08/2010
© Highland Council Education, Culture and Sport Service

Highland Schools Virtual Library