Highland Learning and Teaching Toolkit

 Home | Inclusive & Enjoyable | Flexible  | Whole Learner | Active Citizens | Multiple Intelligence

| About this Toolkit | Parents | Practical Strategies SMT | Feedback | Site Map | Search

Link to Highland Council Website

Learning and Teaching should be Inclusive and Enjoyable:

Motivation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

books graphic1

 

 

 

 

 

Fostering pupils’ motivation towards learning is an essential feature of the teaching skills involved in establishing a positive classroom climate.

Motivation may be achieved in any of three ways.

bullet

The pupil’s natural interest                     intrinsic satisfaction

bullet

Motivation by the teacher                      extrinsic rewards

bullet

Success in the task                                satisfaction and reward

Points Arising from Research

bullet

Young people are intrinsically motivated to a high degree; many elements of the environment constitute challenges for them.  Unfortunately after a number of years in education this intrinsic motivation is dampened.

bullet

Intrinsic motivation is more easily undermined than created.

bullet

Teachers need to be aware of the purpose of any extrinsic methods that they use for motivating their pupils and have a clear rationale about how they foster intrinsic motivation.

bullet

Tasks which best elicit pupil motivation are those seen by pupils to be challenging, difficult but achievable.

bullet

Teaching poorly motivated pupils is a major source of stress for teachers.

bullet

Role of home and parental encouragement is of major importance in influencing the level of pupils’ academic motivation.

bullet

The opportunity to learn from each other in the classroom is becoming recognised as a viable approach to increase pupil motivation and learning.

bullet

Praise to criticism in the ratio of 4:1 will develop a more welcoming and positive climate for learning.

Key Elements of Motivation

Intrinsic motivation

bullet

Involves an interest in the learning task itself and also satisfaction being gained from task

bullet

Effective teaching must win the hearts and minds of pupils if the learning experience is to involve intrinsic motivation, curiosity, interest and a proper educational engagement useful way of eliciting pupils’ interest is to pose a question or a problem at the start of the lesson

bullet

A task can afford a way of working that is satisfying, such as learning as part of a group in a social context. Active involvement and co-operation between pupils fosters enjoyment

bullet

Project work can act as a very important source of motivation through the degree of choice and control it offers to pupils in undertaking the work

bullet

Select topics that are likely to interest pupils, particularly if they relate to pupils’ own experiences

bullet

Offering a choice can also elicit interest

bullet

Provide pupils with regular feedback concerning how their skills and competence are developing.    Review: Show what you know, understand and can do - rehearse, practice and memorise

bullet

Draw their attention to what they can do and understand now compared with before the course of work began

Extrinsic motivation (See Toolkit paper on Praise )

bullet

Teacher praise is a powerful motivator although its effect depends on skilful use

bullet

Praise should be linked to pupils’ effort and attainment, conveying sincere pleasure on the teacher’s part and should be used with credibility

bullet

Well judged, consistent, frequent and targeted use of praise that identifies the individual or group’s specific behaviour or attributes and celebrates them with positive unconditional language is very powerful

bullet

Indicate to pupils the usefulness, relevance and importance of the topic or activity to their needs

Expectation for success

bullet

Teacher expectations can influence their behaviour towards pupils in ways that promote greater progress and produce a ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ effect

bullet

Ensure the tasks are challenging and offer pupils a realistic chance of success, taking into account their ability and previous learning

bullet

‘Hook’ what is to be learned to existing experience or knowledge to aid memory, help assimilate new learning and raise expectations

bullet

Expectations need to convey that the activities are worthwhile and of interest

bullet

Monitor pupils’ progress closely providing quick and supportive feedback when a pupil has encountered major difficulties

bullet

High expectations which are too demanding will not foster greater progress
 

Reflection and Discussion

To what extent does pupil motivation play a part in effective learning?

How might a teacher’s expectations influence pupils’ efforts to learn?

Do you make good use of both intrinsic and extrinsic sources of pupil motivation?

Some Activities Relating To the Issue of Motivation

Key element

Objective

Action

 

Some examples and suggestions

Intrinsic motivation Provide pupils with regular feedback concerning how their skills and competence are developing.

The teacher and/or the pupils reconnect with the lesson overview and specific objectives and with agreed personal goals and targets.

Extrinsic motivation

Indicate to pupils the usefulness, relevance and importance of the topic or activity to their needs.

Begin with some unconditional positive praise: ‘You did that well’

Then give the constructive educative feedback: ‘This part could be improved if you…’

Finish with unconditional positive praise: ‘I really enjoyed marking that..’

Expectation for success ‘Hook’ what is to be learned to existing experience or knowledge to aid memory, help assimilate new learning and raise expectation. Engage pupils in working through what relevance the learning has to their own lives and realities, own goals and aspirations

Connect new learning to prior experience:

  • How are we involved in this?

  • How can we use this?

  • Encourage learners to identify their own reasons for taking part in the lesson.

Selected References


Further Reading

Elliot, S. N. & al (1996) Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, Madison:Brown and Benchmark.

Kyriacou, C. (2001) Effective Teaching in Schools, Nelson Thornes

Kyriacou, C. (1995) Essential Teaching Skills, Stanely Thornes

Smith, A. & Call, N. (1999) The ALPS Approach (Accelerated Learning in the Primary Schoool),Network Educational Press LTD

 


Websites
 

 

www.teachernet.gov.uk/teachingandlearning/library/motivation/

Personal motivation is generally accepted, in the wider world of education, to be the key to the rate of success and attainment of a pupil.

www.learntolearn.ac.uk

www.acceleratedlearning.co.uk

www.alite.co.uk

www.newhorizons.org
A publisher specialising in brain-based learning  

www.cainelearning.com/
Brain based learning site with good links                                               

www.21learn.org
The 21st Century initiative                                                          

http://pzweb.harvard.edu/
Official Harvard Project Zero site          

www.musica.uci.edu/index.html
Music and learning                                

www.brainstore.com
Eric Jensen –link between neuroscience and the classroom       

http://users.stargate.net/~cokids/teacher.html
Early years and brain based learning

www.cdipage.com
The Child Development Institute


webmaster
 

Last updated 20/08/2010
© Highland Council Education, Culture and Sport Service

Highland Schools Virtual Library